October Horse Story 4: An Inquisitive Baker and a Disgusted Pythagorean

It is the morning after the Ides of October. The Roman Forum displays the aftermath of the prestigious October Horse festival. Lucius Cornelius Rufus, a rich land owner and member of the senate, has just arrived in the forum to complete his daily business. His client, Gabinius Faustus, meets him in front of the Regia and takes the opportunity to ask his opinion of the October Horse festival.

Statue of a Roman man in a toga

Marble statue of an aristocratic Roman with toga and scroll (indicating his high status and role in public life). Hermitage Museum, St. Petersberg. © Barbara McManus, 1988. Courtesy of VRoma, www.vroma.org

Gabinius Faustus: Good morning, Cornelius Rufus. How are you this morning?

L. Cornelius Rufus: Very well, thank you. Is there anything I can help you with today?

Gabinius Faustus: Well, Cornelius Rufus, as you know, yesterday was the prestigious annual October Horse festival. Today you can clearly see for yourself the remnants of the festival scattered around the Forum. The horse’s decapitated head is prominently displayed on the Regia, stained with dark-red blood and garlanded with golden loaves. I was curious to know your opinion of the festival because I am aware you are a Pythagorean and know you are against any cruelty to animals.

L. Cornelius Rufus: Good gracious! Well, your inquisitive nature never ceases to amaze me… You are correct that as a Pythagorean I abhor cruelty to animals, which means I have an aversion to the October Horse festival. In my opinion it is utterly barbaric for such an elegant, heroic creature to be butchered and paraded around the Forum – the centre of economic, political and religious activity – in the name of religion. I would never attend such a festival, but I am aware that you usually attend. Were you present at yesterday’s spectacle?

Gabinius Faustus: Why, yes, of course, although it may displease you to hear that I attended the festival. Please, let me take this time to explain the reasons why I believe the October Horse festival and attending it are so important to Rome.

L. Cornelius Rufus: Very well Gabinius, if you must…

Gabinius Faustus: Firstly, I attended the festival for the good of the city. It is widely believed that the festival gives thanks to Mars for his contribution to the safety of the crop by repelling the enemy and keeping them away from the fields. [i] Therefore, we must give thanks to Mars for allowing the fields to yield crops. Secondly, because, as you know, I am a baker, I feel it is my duty to thank Mars in person and on a personal level for protecting our fields so that I may prosper from the good grain that has been harvested. Additionally, as you are aware, loaves are used to crown the decapitated horse’s head which is fixed up there upon the Regia.[ii] This year I had the honour of being asked to bake those loaves, so this year there was an element of personal pride in my attendance too.

That’s one of the reasons why it would give me great pleasure if you would be so kind as to let me share the events of yesterday, even though I may not be able to alter your opinion of the festival.

L. Cornelius Rufus: Gabinius, after such I well-mannered request, what can I say? Even though it displeases me to learn the events of yesterday, I will allow you to continue.

Gabinius Faustus: Thank you, Cornelius Rufus. Yesterday the autumn morning was crisp and the clear sky was a vivid blue, reminiscent of spring time. As you know, we are at the end of the campaign season and the beautiful weather reminded me of the day back in March when I saw the Salii performing their ritual annual dance through Rome to celebrate the start of the campaign season.[iii] I mark the start and end of the campaign season because my son and I were soldiers, although unfortunately my son was killed during the Varrus disaster in the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Caius Poppaeus Sabinus.[iv] I have been to the October Horse festival every year since I finished in the sixth legion and for me personally this festival has become not only a celebration of Mars, but also a celebration of my finishing my service in the army alive. But yesterday I woke before dawn to get a good position on the Campus Martius because this year I was to take my grandsons to watch the chariot race.[v]

We gathered in the Campus Martius and waited in anticipation for the chariot race to begin. The crowd gathered, among those present were the Salii, the Arval priests and the Fetiales.[vi]. I also noticed some Luperci on the other side of the field.[vii] I was standing among my fellow neighbours from the Sacra Via district, all of us hoping to be triumphant and take home the prize that we had been anticipating all year. I recalled the games in the Iliad held in honour of Patroclus’ death where ‘the fast charioteers gathered for the race’.[viii]

A bronze biga with gilded charioteer.

1st-3rd century AD bronze statuette of a biga (two-horse chariot), British Museum. The missing left-hand horse and charioteer have been digitally replaced. © Barbara McManus, 2003. Courtesy of VRoma www.vroma.org

When the race began I felt nervous because, as you may already know, the horse’s head has ended up in the arms of the Suburanenses for several years in a row now and this year we wanted to triumph.[ix] The charioteers sped around the track, the roar of the crowd spurring them along. The charioteer from the Suburra district sped ahead of his fellow competitor from Sacra Via. His tunic was pulled in tightly to his chest and around his arms so he could easily whip his horse to run faster, like the Greek charioteers.

However, the fierce charioteer from the Sacra Via glided towards the charioteer from the Subura district, as if he was Apollo in his chariot drawing the sun across the sky.[x] The gap between them drew ever narrower and a rush of excitement tingled through my body as I realised we were drawing closer to our long awaited victory. My body was perspiring in the midday heat and my heart was pounding to the beat of the drums of the Salii sounding in the distance. ‘They were cutting in very close driving their chariots and horses round the post and letting their bodies lean a little to the left of the horses’, just as Nestor had told his son Antilochus to do at Patroclocus’ funeral games in the Iliad.[xi]

The chariot race of the Funeral Games of Patroclus

Greek heroes compete in the four-horse chariot race at the funeral games of Patroclus. Detail of black-figure crater 570-560BC painted by Cleitias (potted by Ergotimos) known as the François Vase. National Archaeological Museum 4209, Florence.

L. Cornelius Rufus: So how did this chariot race you so eloquently describe end? I despise this festival, did this one end as gruesomely as they usually do?

Gabinius Faustus: Well, if you will allow me to continue! A few laps later it was all over – I am extremely pleased to inform you that the winning charioteer was from our region of the Sacra Via: we were the victors in this particular part of the festival. Our charioteer drew his spear and launched it into the neck of the right-hand horse from the winning pair. The animal was killed with that single fatal blow.[xii]

The priest rushed over to perform the sacred rites and from my position it looked as though it was the flamen Martialis who took on this role.[xiii] The head of the horse was bowed down while the priest decapitated it with an axe.[xiv] The smell was horrific in the midday heat, but the crowd cheered as the blood from the horse spattered onto the dry ground and began running along the ground in a stream resembling a red Tiber. It made me think of the wars and the bloodshed we have withstood as a people.

The tail of the horse was sliced off. Once removed from the lifeless horse which lay before us, motionless in a widening pool of its own blood, the tail was immediately whisked away. The crowd roared as the tail left the arena making its way to the forum to be fixed upon the Regia.[xv]

L. Cornelius Rufus: Let me interrupt you here, Gabinius. Your delight in this religious festival appears to be stained with Epicurean satisfaction; your enjoyment of the festival thus far has had no religious meaning whatsoever. It is entirely reliant upon personal enjoyment, not unlike that gained by head-count spectators at the gladiatorial games![xvi] My personal views on the decapitation of such a glorious animal are as follows. As a Pythagorean, I believe in reincarnation, so the killing of any animal is against my convictions – which is why I follow a vegetarian lifestyle.[xvii] That horse, who was so cruelly butchered, may have been the soul of your poor son who tragically died on the Danube. You can see why a festival such as the October Horse distresses me.

Gabinius Faustus: But that distress – like mine at the death of my son – should be tempered by the benefit to Rome because the death of one saves the life of others. This festival is not distressing, it is intimately linked with the Spring festivals of Aprilis.[xviii] The blood collected from the October Horse is mixed with the ash of the calf burned at the Fordicidia and this mixture is used at the Parilia, to purify the flocks of sheep which provide us with wool from which to make the togas that are the sign of our citizenship. No wonder that the Parilia is also the birthday of the city of Rome![xix]

Also you talk about the festival as though it was barbaric, but giving our best to a god as part of fulfilling the contractual obligation between them and Rome is not barbaric.

That being said, let me tell you about my favourite part of the day: the battle for the head of the horse. I think it is unfair that after our success in the chariot race the challenge is still on as both sides compete for the prize of the horse’s head to take back to their respective areas of Rome as a symbol of their victory. I remember when I was young enough to participate in this scramble, but at my advanced age I felt it better to stand aside and watch my grandsons engage in this thrilling event. I felt as youthful as them, even though I was just watching and my heart had sunk into my stomach from nerves. People jumped on one another just to get a touch of the sacred animal’s head. They tussled, trying to keep the head in one piece, yet intent on bringing it home. Finally my grandsons emerged, up to their elbows in blood, with the horse’s head carried proudly above their own. Their faces were smeared with blood and their eyes shone with pride; as did mine. They raced the head out of the arena towards the Regia.

Like a swarm of bees the crowd descended onto the Sacra Via and towards the Forum Romanum. It was such a contrast from the orderly ranks of legionaries marching off to war at the beginning of the campaign season in March. I joined the crowd once it reached the Forum just in time to witness the blood from the tail of the horse being dripped onto the hearth.[xx]

My grandsons wove through the bustling crowd to find me. We gazed in delight upon the horse’s head which had been fixed upon the Regia displaying the victory of those from the Sacra Via. I was particularly proud because my loaves had been used to garland the precious beast’s head after decapitation.[xxi] We were standing close to where we are standing now…

We have to praise our gods because we know from past experience that religious decline and rising immorality in Rome brought down their wrath upon us, cxomplete with wars, death, famine and bad luck.[xxii] Now you have heard my account of the October Horse festival and know how much pride and excitement it brings to so many and the good it brings to the city. Have I been able to influence your opinion of this festival even a little…?

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[i] C. Bennett Pascal ((1981), ‘October Horse’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 85: 261-291: 264) considers that the festival was not an agricultural festival but a thanksgiving to Mars for a good harvest.

[ii] It has been suggested that if the festival were about fertility then the ‘horse’s head would have been adorned with seed or corn’ not loaves, e.g. Bennett Pascal, n.[i]: 266.

[iii] The Salii (literally ‘leaping’) priests performed a ritual dance on several days in March and October of every year to celebrate the beginning and end of the campaign season. The armilustrium, the purification of the soldiers’ arms before putting them away for the winter also happened in October. See L. Adkins & R. Adkins, 1994, Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome, Oxford: 197-198.

[iv] The Romans referred to the consuls of a year (as listed on the walls of the Regia) as a means of dating: AD 9 is ‘the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Caius Poppaeus Sabinus’. In AD 9 Publius Quinctilious Varrus, who was a provincial governor, provoked a rebellion in the Roman-occupied territories of Germania. The Germani, under Arminius, defeated Varrus; annihilating three legions and nine auxillary corps in the Teutoburg forest. See the brief contemporary account of Velleius Paterculus’ Roman History 3 and M. le Glay, J.-L. Voisin & Y. le Bohec, (2005), tr. Antonia Nevill, A History of Rome, Boston: 215.

[v] The Campus Martius (‘Field of Mars’) was an area of Rome sacred to Mars that was used as the training ground for Roman soldiers and for meetings of the comitia centuriata, as well as being the gathering point for triumphs. See, Adkins & Adkins, n.[iii]: 36-37.

[vi] For the Salii, see n.[iii].

The Arval priests held a festival in honour of the goddess Dia Dea, which took place in the grove in May, and offered public sacrifices for the fertility of the fields. If the horse was perceived as a personification of the corn spirit it is possible that the Arval priests were involved in the October Horse festival, as suggested by Adkins & Adkins, n.[iii]: 255.

The Fetiales were involved with rituals that involved war and had a role in ensuring that a war was just. See, Plutarch Life of Numa 12.3 with comments by J.A. North, (2000), Roman Religion, Cambridge: 23.

[vii] These priests performed the sacrifices at the Lupercalia, see E. Kearns & S. Price, (2003), Dictionary of Classical Myth and Religion, Oxford: 321.

[viii] Homer Iliad 23.260-280.

[ix] The inhabitants of the Subura district.

[x] Euripides Medea 1575. Apollo was a god with many traits, but as Apollo Helios he is known for driving the sun-chariot across the sky. According to M.T. Boatwright, D.J. Gargola & R.J.A. Talbott (2006, A Brief History of the Romans, Oxford: 242), ‘[i]n standard arrangement four-horse chariots lapped at least seven times, for a total distance of 5.25 miles or 8.4 km. Each race took about fifteen minutes. And twenty-four races would usually take place in a day.’

[xi] Homer Iliad 23.335-340, tr. M. Hammond, (1987), Harmondsworth.

[xii] According to Bennett Pascal (n.[i]: 261), no ancient author tells us whether or how a killing blow was delivered. Therefore this is our own interpretation of the events.

[xiii] ‘It is commonly assumed, but without real evidence, that the officiating priest, and actual thrower of the spear, was the flamen Martialis. This has been inferred not only from the locale and presumed recipient of the sacrifice but also from Cassius Dio’s account of a grisly event in 46 BC.’ (Bennett Pascal, n.[i]: 262).

[xiv] The sacrificial animal had to appear compliant.

[xv] Bennett Pascal (n[i]Regia was situated within the Forum. It was traditionally the home of King Numa, the second king of Rome, and was donated by him to the Pontifex Maximus, who used it as offices during the Republic. Inside the Regia were shrines dedicated to Mars, which held the sacred shields carried in procession by the Salii, see further n.[iii].

[xvi] Epicureans believed that while gods existed ‘they were remote from the world’, as M. Beard, J. North & S. Price ((1998), Religions of Rome, Vol. II: A Sourcebook, Cambridge: 38) put it. This contradicts Roman religious belief, which has the world imbued with numina (‘spirits’). For this reason many Romans perceived Epicureanism as an excuse for ‘simple hedonism and the pursuit of pleasure’ (Beard et al., n.[xvi]: 35).

[xvii] Pythagoreans believed in metempsychosis/transmigration of the soul (Diodorus Siculus 1.98.2). ‘Transmigration is the belief that on death some aspect of us usually identified with the soul survives to enter another body’ (Kearns & Price, n.[viii]: 556-557). Therefore, Pythagoreans were against the idea of killing living things because any living thing could be inhabited by a human soul. Pythagoreans practiced vegetarianism and non-animal religious sacrifices (e.g. Plutarch Life of Numa 8.8). There were not many Pythagoreans in Rome and many of those were to be found amongst the members of the elite.

[xviii] Beard et al. (n.[xvi]: 63-64) survey the agricultural festivals occurring during the month of April.

[xix] The Fordicidia occurred on April 15th and was a festival in honour of Tellus (the god of the earth; tellus mater was ‘Mother Earth’). At the Fordicidia a pregnant cow was sacrificed and the calf was burned on the hearth by the Vestal Virgins. It is believed that the name of the Fordicidia derives from the Latin word forda (i.e. ‘pregnant cow’), although the festival was also referred to as the Hordicidia, see Varro (De Re Rustica 2.5.6) who states that ‘a pregnant cow is called “horda”’ and then goes on to refer to the Hordicidia as a day on which pregnant cows are sacrificed.

Beard, North & Price (n.[xvi]: 116-119) explore the Parilia, which occurred on the 21st April and consider the festival’s perceived mixed origins: the Parilia was Rome’s birthday (according to Plutarch Life of Romulus 12.1) and/or an ancient pastoral festival (Dionysius of Halicarnassus Roman Antiquities 1.88) in honour of the deity Pales. During the festival the offerings, including horse-blood and calf’s ashes, are mixed into a paste before being distributed amongst shepherds to be burned and the smoke used to cleanse their flocks (Ovid Fasti 4.721-46, 783-806). The fumigants distributed most probably contained the ashes of the calf burned at the Fordicidia and the blood collected from the October horse.

[xx] The Vestal’s hearth was the flame of the city and symbolised both prosperity for the city and fertility, see Bennett Pascal, n.[i]: 264. Similarly, the horse could symbolise the horse spirit and/or the vegetation daemon which is ritually killed at each harvest. The hearth of the city was kept alight by the Vestal Virgins, however some wealthy households, such as that of Augustus, also contained a shrine to Vesta with a hearth.

[xxi] ‘The sacrifice was performed on account of a successful crop of grain’ (Bennett Pascal, n.[i]: 261).

[xxii] Religious decline was often used as an explanation for misfortunes affecting the Roman state. During the civil wars of the first century AD, for example, there was a sense that the Roman people were not worshipping the Gods in the correct manner. Augustus (whose name/title is derived from ‘augury’, the process of reading bird signs to understand the will of the Gods, as discussed by S.J. Green, 2009, ‘Malevolent Gods and Promethean Birds: Contesting Augury in Augustus’s Rome’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 139: 147-167: 147-8) introduced a number of religious reforms in an attempt to remedy this. He also built and repaired temples around the empire.

October Horse Story 2: First Experiences of the Festival – from a Farmer & Son to a Flamen

A Roman Farmer and his Son

The Ides of October have come around quickly again, which means the festival of the October Horse is upon us.[i] Once again it was a cool morning when I approached the city. However, this year is different. My wife has passed away in childbirth since last October and it is only my eldest son, Lucius, who will be joining me at the festival this year. My son is particularly excited because he has heard a lot about the festival in previous years and his first experience of the October Horse is important to me. Early this morning, we had attended to our animals and gone about our daily routine before setting off to the city for the festival. As farmers the festival is particularly important to us, because it is our chance to request a good harvest for the coming year.

Map of Rome showing the Circus Maximus and Campus Martius

Map of Rome showing the Circus Maximus and Campus Martius.

As we entered the city and walked past the Circus Maximus.[ii] I explain to my son that this is where chariot races and animal shows would usually take place during religious festivals but that the October Horse is a special religious festival that only takes place on the Campus Martius.[iii] It made me wonder how Lucius would react to the sacrifice of the horse that is the central part of the festival, particularly as he is very fond of all the animals on our farm. As we pass the Palatine Hill and then through the forum my son notices many painted advertisements for this festival, to which we had been looking forward since last year.[iv] As we get closer to the Campus Martius, where the festival is taking place, we can feel the atmosphere building. The crowd is thickening and I hold on to my son’s hand tightly.

Having become part of the city, the Campus Martius is a low lying plain situated outside the pomerium with the river Tiber to the west.[v] Its size is remarkable and during the emperor Caesar Augustus’ reign this area has changed dramatically with the construction of a number of great buildings. Every one of the buildings has a story to tell about one of Rome’s great achievers. I point many out to Lucius, especially the Theatre of Pompey, the Villa Publica and the Ara Pacis.[vi] We take our place amongst the crowd in view of the race track, where the festival will begin.

Statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus

1st century AD statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus from the Via Labicana. Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (National Museums). © Barbara McManus (2003). Courtesy of www.vroma.org

After a few minutes a silence fells over us all because the arrival of Caesar Augustus is announced. Leading the procession are the Praetorian guards, who ensure the safety of the Emperor and are carrying spears and shields. Following closely behind is the flamen Martialis, who will be carrying out the sacrifice, accompanied by the Salii.[vii] The flamen Martialis is particularly recognisable because of his distinctive priestly dress.

Next comes the eagerly anticipated emperor, with his wife Livia, and we pay our respects by cheering them loudly. Caesar himself holds the important religious position of Pontifex Maximus and because of that today his head is veiled.[viii] We watch as the emperor takes his place in the most prominent position, so that he is visible to us all and has a prime view of events.

The beginning of the race is announced by Caesar, who regularly takes a direct role in such festivities, and the crowd, buzzing with excitement, surges forward trying to get the best view. I grab Lucius and swing him up onto my shoulders from fear of losing him in the crush and so that he can get a better view of the race over the heads of the many people now standing in front of us. A drum roll sounds and the crowd suddenly erupts into cries and cheers as the horses bolt forward. The race has begun!

A Roman chariot race

Second half of 1st century AD terra cotta relief with a scene from the Circus Maximus showing a charioteer driving a quadriga ready to round the turning post. He is preceded by a jubilator on horseback and part of the body of a fallen driver can be seen at the foot of the turning post.
London, British Museum. © Barbara McManus (2003). Courtesy of www.vroma.org

Everyone is eager to get a glimpse of the chariots as they thunder down the track. As they approach the hairpin bend, I hold my breath because I know from previous years how dangerous this bend has proven to be as chariots have toppled over and  charioteers been injured. The crowd jostles like the stormy seas that Aeneas faced on his journey to Latium, as the horses pass by where my son and I are standing. As they do, everyone whoops and cheers for their favourites and I feel Lucius quiver with excitement as his grip tightens around my neck. The horses fly down the final straight, neck and neck all the way, the ground shaking under their hooves. By a nose, Parnassius, the favourite, crosses the line first after an intense race. The crowd cheers loudly, but I see some people sneaking off through the crowds, presumably to collect their winnings!

Now that the race has taken place, the crowd separate into the opposing communities in anticipation of the sacrifice and the coming battle for the head of the winning horse.  We up a place near the inhabitants of Sacra Via and prepare to watch the forthcoming proceedings.[ix] The Emperor descends from where he had been watching the race, to watch over as well as participate in the sacrifice of the horse. I watch on sympathetically as the right-hand horse of the winning pair is led up to the altar of Mars, and although I know the sacrifice is essential for the hope of a good harvest, I can’t help but feel slightly sad for this great and noble creature.[x] Having animals back at our farm, I feel particularly moved. I have always thought it unusual that a horse is sacrificed at an agricultural festival, however some believe the festival has a military significance, especially as the animal is a sacrificial victim of Mars.[xi] At this point I check on Lucius, whose view from my shoulders means he has missed nothing and now has gone still and quiet. I gently remind him that watching the sacrifice is one of his civic duties and the horse is being sacrificed for the good of the city. The leading priest, the flamen Martialis, comes forward accompanied by several other priests. I watch as they approach the tethered horse and seeing that the flamen Martialis appears somewhat hesitant, I wonder if he too feels some sympathy for the animal and what he might be think about the festival…

A priest and flamines from the Ara Pacis frieze.

A priest and four of the fifteen flamines (wearing the distinctive leather skull cap with olive-wood spike) follow behind Augustus in the procession of the south frieze of the Ara Pacis, 13-9 BC. Rome, Ara Pacis Museum. © Sailko, 2006.

The Flamen Martialis

I am nervous about my duties this year. It is my first time leading the October Horse festival and I have never performed the sacrifice of a horse before. This festival is going to be particularly different for me, as there will be no sacrificial meal and no ordinary disposal of the animal.[xii] My companions have positioned themselves around the horse to hold it still and for it to appear to the crowd that the animal is compliant, which is especially important.[xiii] I raise my spear, gripping it tightly as I plunge it into the thick neck – not deep enough. I draw the bloody spear back and plunge it with greater force a second time into the gushing wound.[xiv] Blood spurts out and trickles down the horse’s legs onto the grass, staining it a deep crimson. The horse hits the ground with a thud and the audience applauds.[xv] I step back in relief and watch as the next stage of the sacrifice begins.

Our emperor and Pontifex Maximus, Caesar Augustus, is standing by as the tail is sliced off, ready to pass it to the runner, who is stationed beside me. Speed is vital to the correct procedure of this festival.[xvi] Immediately, without hesitation, the runner dashes through the already parted crowd. This courtesy is because they know the importance of a dripping tail reaching the Regia so that the blood can be sprinkled on the hearth.[xvii] Being the flamen Martialis, priest of Mars, god of War, this festival has for me a particular military significance. The festival marks the end of another successful year of military campaigns so many of us gather together to offer thanks to Mars.[xviii] My belief is that the horse is sacrificed because it is the animal of warfare and not, as some used to assume – mistakenly – a link to the Trojan horse.[xix]

I can feel the tension of the crowd building as the two sides prepare for the struggle.

The crowd is pressing in as the horse’s head is hacked off ready for the impending battle. I step back, ready to observe the chaos that always ensues at this point of the proceedings. The head is positioned in the middle between the two opposing sides, the Sacra Via and the Subura, and they surge forward. This is always my least favourite part of the festival, however I appreciate the importance of gaining the horse’s head for the winning side for there to be a successful harvest in the year to come Suddenly, after a drawn out and lengthy struggle, the winner is announced. Sacra Via, for the second year in a row, has claimed the horse’s head.

This community proceeds to adorn the horse’s head with a garland of loaves, a further symbol of a prosperous crop for the winning side in the coming year  – it’s a good job that both sides are Roman![xx] I join the procession towards the Regia.[xxi] It is a joyous celebration and the mood is jubilant. Two well-regarded men from the Sacra Via community take the role of nailing the head of the horse to wall of the Regia, which they perform with difficulty. With each nail that penetrates the horse’s head, the crowd cheers louder and with more animation. Once they have finished, everybody steps back to admire their prize. As I take my place at the front of the crowd to make the closing prayers of the festival, the crowd appears fatigued after the physical battle, yet proud of their success in winning of the head. I have enjoyed my first experience as leading priest of the October Horse festival, the day devoted to my god has gone well and I am sure he will be pleased….

The Roman Farmer and his Son

As Lucius and I wearily return to our farm, we are in high spirits. We have both enjoyed the experience of our first festival together. Although I have missed my wife dreadfully and could not help but remember attending the previous year’s festival year with her, Lucius and I have made the most of this day. As the day draws to a close, and the sun sinks behind the hills, we look forward to a prosperous harvest and to next year’s October Horse festival with great anticipation.

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[i] The Ides of the month fell on either the 13th or 15th day. These dates were supposed to coincide with the full moon. The specific date would be announced at the start of each month by a priest. In the case of the October festival the Ides fell on the 15th.

‘October Horse’ is a translation of Roman name for the festival, which is Equus October, see Festus, On the Meaning of Words, who provides a précis of Paulus, the text is reproduced in G. Dumézil, (1970), Archaic Roman Religion, Chicago.

[ii] During the 1st century AD animal shows would have been located in the Circus Maximus, see A. Futrell, (1997), Blood in the Arena: The Spectacle of Roman Power, Austin, Texas: 29 and J. Balsdon, (1969), Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome, London.

[iii] The Campus Martius, or ‘Field of Mars’, is an area of Rome situated near the Tiber. The area was dedicated to the god Mars due to the military focus of the area. According to D. Favro ((1996), The Urban Image of Augustan Rome, Cambridge: 38), at this time the southernmost part was quite urban whereas further north the density of buildings decreased and it became more of a marshland.

[iv] Painted adverts were a common sight in Rome. They were used to promote forthcoming games or festivals. They would generally feature the name of the host of the games or festival, the date it was to be held and in the case of festivals, the particular god that was to be honoured.

[v] The pomerium was the sacred boundary surrounding the city of Rome. For a full description of its significance, see Livy, The History of Rome 1.44.

[vi] The Ara Pacis Augustae (‘the altar of Augustan Peace’) is an altar to represent peace. The altar was meant to be a vision of Roman civil religion. The altar was commissioned by the Roman Senate on the 13th July 13BC to honour Augustus’ triumphant return to Rome from Gaul and Hispania and was consecrated on 30th January 9BC by the Senate to celebrate the peace established in the Empire after Augustus’ victories. See Augustus, Res Gestae 2.2; 8.5 (tr. S. A. Takács in W. Eck, (2007), The Age of Augustus, Oxford) and brief discussion by C. Crow, (2006), ‘Ara Pacis’, History Today 56: 5

[vii] The flamen Martialis was the priest of Mars, the god of War, and he was leader of public rites to honour Mars. Furthermore, ‘[i]t is commonly assumed, but without real evidence, that the officiating priest, and actual thrower of the spear, was the Flamen Martialis’ according to C. Bennett Pascal, (1981), ‘October horse’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 85: 261-91; 262.

For the Equus October festival as indicative of Mars’ early origins as a god, see W.K.C. Guthrie, (1960), ‘H. J. Rose: Some Problems of Classical Religion. Pp. 53. Oslo: University Press, 1958. Paper, kr. 7.50’, The Classical Review 10:178-179: 178.

[viii] The Pontifex Maximus was the elected leader of the pontifices and the most powerful of the great political priests. Augustus assumed the title in 12BC after the death of Lepidus. See Augustus, Res Gestae 7.3 (tr. S. A. Takács in W. Eck, (2007), The Age of Augustus, Oxford) and M. Beard, J. North & S. Price, (1998), Religions of Rome: Vol 1: A History, Cambridge: 186-9.

[ix] The two neighbouring communities of the Sacra Via and Subura fought over the head of the horse. The winners fastened the horse’s head to a conspicuous building in their quarter of the city. If the Sacra Via side won possession of the head, they fixed it to the wall of the Regia. If the Subura side won they fixed it to the wall of the turris Mamilia. See W. Warde Fowler, (1989), The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic: An introduction to the study of the religion of the Romans, London: 242.

[x] There is much dispute over the original meaning of the festival. Some regard it as an agricultural festival deriving from Festus’ remark that its ‘sacrifice was made for crops’, e.g. H. Scullard, (1981), Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic, New York: 193. In this interpretation the horse represented a Corn-spirit and the sacrifice was conducted in hope for a successful harvest.

[xi] Usually at a Roman festival the sacrificial animal is an ox, however in this case a horse is appropriate because the festival honours Mars, the god of war, who was commonly depicted with a horse. See Paulus (quoted by Dumézil, n.[i]) and Plutarch, Roman Questions 97, tr. F.C. Rabbitt), both discussed by Bennett Pascal n.[vii].

An ox being led to sacrifice

A 1st century AD altar relief with an ox being led to a tripod altar in front of a tetrastyle temple hung with bunting; the victimarius holds a hammer with which to stun the bull before its throat is cut, while the presiding magistrate, his head veiled, holds out a patera with which libations are made. From the sanctuary of the Genius of Augustus in the Forum of Pompeii. © Barbara McManus (2003). Courtesy of www.vroma.org

[xii] Unlike most Roman festivals, the sacrificed animal was not consumed; apparently because the horse was an animal not deemed suitable for consumption. Only head and the tail of the animal were used in the sacrifice, possibly because it was believed they represented the whole animal. What became of the rest of the carcass is unknown, on which see, Rose, n.[vii].

[xiii] The attitude of the animal being sacrificed was vital to the success of the ritual. Effective sacrifices were thought to result from willing victims. If the animal appeared to struggle then this was thought of as a bad omen and ropes were used to prevent this and to ensure an impression of the compliance of the animal, see Pliny, Natural History 8.183.

[xiv] A spear is used for the sacrifice of the horse due to its military significance (Polybius 12.4.10, tr. W. R. Paton).

[xv] According to Polybius 12.4.10 (tr. W. R. Paton) omens can be identified from the manner of which the horse falls.

[xvi] A runner was chosen for their speed because it was vital for the horse’s tail to reach the Regia while it was still dripping with blood (Warde Fowler, n.[ix]: 242), so this had to be accomplished before the blood clotted or dried in the air.

[xvii] The Regia was a religious building located in the Forum (Beard et al., n.[viii]: 39). It was originally the home of the kings of Rome and then became the headquarters of the pontifices. It is disputed whether the blood from the tail of the sacrificed horse was used together with the ashes of the unborn calves in the Parilia, which was a festival conducted by the Vestals on April 21st. See Warde Fowler, n.[ix]: 243.

[xviii] It has been suggested that the sacrifice is made to Mars as a purification of the army after their summer campaigns (Scullard, n.[x]: 193).

[xix] The link between this festival and the Trojan Horse comes from Timaeus, who claimed that the Romans wanted to remember the fall of Troy, however this possibility was rejected by many ancient authors, including Polybius (12.4.b, tr. W. R. Paton) and Paulus (quoted by Dumézil, n.[i]: 197).

[xx] The head of the sacrificed horse was adorned with loaves, making it an effigy of the corn spirit, which brings fertility to and wards off evil influences from the crops in the year to come. (Warde Fowler, n.[ix]: 246).

[xxi] The Regia was a religious building located in the Forum (Beard et al., n.[viii]: 39). It was originally the home of the kings of Rome and then became the headquarters of the pontifices.